Rules for preparing for diagnostic tests
Preparation for X-ray of the lumbar spine
Three days before the study, exclude from the diet: black bread, milk, peas, beans, cabbage, fresh vegetables, fruits and sweet dishes;
On the eve of the study, no later than 18-00 - a light dinner, then setting 2 cleansing enemas at 19-00 and 21-00;
On the day of the study - another cleansing enema 2 hours before the study;
Come on an empty stomach (do not eat, do not drink).
Preparation for ultrasound of the abdominal cavity
- 2-3 days before the examination, it is recommended to switch to a slag-free diet, exclude from the diet foods that increase gas formation in the intestine (raw vegetables rich in vegetable fiber, whole milk, black bread, legumes, carbonated drinks, as well as high-calorie confectionery products - pastries, cakes ). On the eve of the study - a light dinner no later than 18 hours, excluding the intake of coarse, difficult to digest food;
- For patients with gastrointestinal problems (constipation), it is advisable during this period of time to take enzyme preparations and enterosorbents (for example, festal, mezim-forte, activated charcoal or espumisan, 1 tablet 3 times a day), which will help reduce the manifestations of flatulence;
- Ultrasound of the abdominal organs must be carried out on an empty stomach, if the study cannot be carried out in the morning, a light breakfast is allowed, on the day of the study do not drink, do not take food, drugs
- If you are taking medications, notify the ultrasound doctor about it;
- You can not conduct a study after gastro- and colonoscopy, as well as R-studies of the gastrointestinal tract.
- You must have a change of footwear, a towel, a referral, and the results of previous examinations with you.
- With a tendency to increased gas production in the intestine, 3 days before the upcoming study, a light diet is recommended without the use of foods that enhance intestinal motility and gas formation (flour products, black bread, raw vegetables and fruits, legumes, milk, juices, carbonated drinks, and others).
- on the eve of the study - a light dinner no later than 7 pm;
- The study is carried out with a full bladder, therefore, it is necessary not to urinate before the study for 3-4 hours and drink 1 liter of non-carbonated liquid 1 hour before the procedure.
- No special training is required for transvaginal ultrasound (TVS). In case the patient has problems with the gastrointestinal tract, it is necessary to carry out a cleansing enema the night before.
- You must have a change of shoes, a towel, a referral, the results of previous examinations
- transabdominal. The study is carried out with a full bladder, therefore, it is necessary not to urinate before the study for 3 to 4 hours and drink 1 liter of non-carbonated liquid 1 hour before the procedure.
- transrectal (TRUS) - this method should be the main one when examining the prostate gland. No bladder filling is required for TRUS. On the eve of the study, a cleansing enema is required.
- It is advisable to study the mammary glands in the first 5-10 days of the menstrual cycle (phase 1 of the cycle).
- You must have a referral with you.
- The study is carried out strictly on an empty stomach after a 4-hour fast.
- Provide a slag-free diet in two days.
- Cleansing enema the night before and in the morning, directly on the day of the study.
- Food intake.
- Physical and emotional overload
- Physiotherapy, instrumental examinations carried out before the delivery of biomaterials.
- The phase of the menstrual cycle in women.
- Time of day when taking blood (there are daily rhythms of human activity and, accordingly, daily fluctuations in many hormonal and biochemical parameters, expressed to a greater or lesser extent for different indicators).
- strictly on an empty stomach, after 12-14 hours of fasting, blood should be donated to determine the parameters of the lipid profile (cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides);
- the glucose tolerance test is performed in the morning on an empty stomach after at least 12, but not more than 16 hours of fasting.
- in the morning on an empty stomach, collect at least 10 ml of morning urine taken in the middle of urination in a special laboratory container.
- after emptying the bladder at 6 o'clock in the morning, every 3 hours during the day, urine is collected in separate containers, which are indicated by the collection time or portion number, a total of 8 portions. 1 portion - from 6.00 to 9.00, 2 portion - from 9.00 to 12.00, 3 portion - from 12.00 to 15.00, 4 portion - from 15.00 to 18.00, 5 portion - from 18.00 to 21.00, 6 portion - from 21.00 to 24.00, 7 portion - from 24.00 to 3.00, portion 8 - from 3.00 to 6.00;
- all the collected amount of urine in 8 special (signed, indicating the number and time) containers are delivered to the laboratory;
- be sure to indicate the volume of daily urine.
- morning urine is collected in a sterile laboratory container with a lid;
- the first 15 ml of urine are not used for analysis, the next 5-10 ml are taken;
- collected urine is delivered to the laboratory within 1.5 - 2 hours after collection;
- storage of urine in the refrigerator is allowed, but not more than 3-4 hours;
- collection of urine is carried out before the start of drug treatment;
- if it is necessary to assess the effect of the therapy, urine culture is performed at the end of the course of treatment.
- freezing is not allowed;
- long-term storage is not allowed (more than 5 - 6 hours);
- a loosely closed container is not allowed;
- biomaterial collected the day before is not subject to research.
Preparation for ultrasound of the pelvic organs (bladder, uterus, appendages in women)
Preparation for ultrasound of the bladder and prostate in men
1. The study is carried out with a full bladder, therefore, it is necessary not to urinate before the study for 3-4 hours and drink 1 liter of still liquid 1 hour before the procedure.
2. Ultrasound of the prostate is performed by two methods:
Preparation for an ultrasound of the mammary glands
Preparation for ultrasound of the lumbar spine
Preparation for endoscopic examinations
For 2 days, exclude chocolate, seeds, nuts, spicy foods and alcohol from the diet.
On the eve of an easily digestible dinner until 19.00 (exclude long-digesting foods: meat, black bread, raw fruits and vegetables).
It is carried out on an empty stomach: on the day of the study, food and water, medicines in the form of tablets and capsules are not taken. The question of whether or not to take constantly taken medications before EGDS without harming health must be agreed with your doctor.
When conducting a study later than 11.00, you can drink a few sips of water 3 hours before the study.
Smoking on the day of the study is not advisable (increases mucus secretion and gag reflex).
It is recommended to attend the study at least 5 minutes before the appointed time (to relieve muscle tension).
It is allowed to brush your teeth, do ultrasound examinations, take medications in the form of a spray (for coronary artery disease, bronchial asthma) and forms for absorption in the oral cavity, to give injections that do not require subsequent food intake.
Carry with you constantly taken medications, data from previous studies. Tell your doctor if you have any drug, food or other allergies.
Patients over 50 years of age have an ECG (data no more than a week).
Stop taking activated charcoal and iron preparations in 3-4 days before the examination.
Option 1. Fortrans.
On the eve of the study, the last meal is at 14.00.
Dilute the Fortrans package in 1 liter of water, at the rate of 1 liter of ready-made solution for 15-20 kg. weight, i.e. on average, you need to dilute and drink 3-4 packets of Fortrans. Drink the finished solution fractionally, about 100 ml., Every 5-7 minutes, from 15.00 to 19.00.
In the morning, do a cleansing enema.
Option 2. Duphalac (lactulose) in syrup.
On the eve of the study, the last meal is at 14.00.
200 ml. dilute syrup in 1.5-2.0 liters of water. Drink the prepared solution in fractional amounts of 100 ml. for about 1 hour.
In the morning, do a cleansing enema.
Option 3. Castor oil.
On the eve of the study, the last meal is at 14.00.
After lunch, take 50-80 g of castor oil.
In the evening, do cleansing enemas.
On the morning of the study day, repeat the cleansing enemas to clean water.
Do not eat or drink on the day of the study!
If necessary, it is not only possible, but also necessary to take the previously prescribed medications!
Preparation for laboratory tests
To carry out research, urine and feces must be delivered to the laboratory in special containers.
Factors affecting the results of laboratory tests:
General rules when preparing for research
It is advisable to observe the following rules when conducting biochemical, hormonal, hematological tests, complex immunological tests.
If possible, it is recommended to donate blood in the morning, in the period from 8 to 10 hours, on an empty stomach (at least 8 hours and not more than 10 hours of hunger, drinking water, as usual), avoid food overloads the day before.
More stringent requirements for the diet are imposed in the following cases:
If you are taking any medications, you should consult with your doctor about the advisability of conducting a study while taking medications or the possibility of discontinuing the drug before the study, the duration of cancellation is determined by the period of elimination of the drug from the blood.
Alcohol - Avoid drinking alcohol on the eve of the study.
Smoking - do not smoke for at least 1 hour before the study.
Eliminate physical and emotional stress on the eve of the study.
After arriving at the laboratory, it is recommended to rest (it is better to sit) for 10-20 minutes before taking blood samples.
It is undesirable to donate blood for laboratory research soon after physiotherapy procedures, instrumental examination and other medical procedures.
When monitoring laboratory parameters in dynamics, it is recommended to conduct repeated studies under the same conditions: in the same laboratory, donate blood at the same time of day, etc.
General urine analysis
The collection of the analysis is carried out in a container for urine analysis.
On the eve of the test, it is recommended not to eat vegetables and fruits that can change the color of urine (beets, carrots, etc.), do not take diuretics.
Before collecting urine, it is necessary to make a hygienic toilet for the external genital organs (in the evening, on the eve of the toilet with boiled water and soap, in the morning, just before collection, - toilet with boiled water without detergent).
Women are advised not to have a urine test during their period.
Collect approximately 50 ml of morning urine in a container. For the correct study, during the first morning urination, a small amount of urine (the first 1 - 2 seconds) is released into the toilet, and then, without interrupting urination, substitute a container for collecting urine, in which to collect approximately 50 ml of urine.
Close the container tightly with the screw cap immediately after collecting urine.
It is necessary to deliver a container with urine to the laboratory within a day (according to the schedule for receiving biomaterial until 9).
Collection of daily urine for biochemical analysis
Urine is collected per day.
The first morning urine sample is removed. All subsequent portions of urine excreted during the day, night and the morning portion of the next day are collected in one container, which is stored in the refrigerator (+4 ... + 8 ° C) during the entire collection time (this is a necessary condition, since at room temperature significantly decreases glucose content).
At the end of the collection of urine, its volume is measured, the urine is thoroughly shaken and 50-100 ml is poured into a special container in which it will be delivered to the laboratory; - be sure to indicate the volume of daily urine.
Collection of urine for research according to Nechiporenko
(revealing a latent inflammatory process)
Collection of urine for research according to Zimnitsky
(the patient takes into account the amount of liquid drunk per day)
Collection of urine for microbiological examination (urine culture)
The collection of the analysis is carried out in a container for the analysis of feces (with a spatula).
The material (feces) is collected before starting treatment with antibacterial and chemotherapy drugs. For research, freshly excreted feces are collected.
3 - 4 days before the study, it is necessary to stop taking laxatives, castor and petroleum jelly, stop the administration of rectal suppositories. The feces obtained after the enema are not used for research.
Before collecting the analysis, urinate in the toilet, then, by natural defecation, collect the stool in a bed vessel (make sure that no urine gets into). The bedpan is pre-treated with any disinfectant, thoroughly rinsed with running water several times and rinsed with boiling water.
The feces are collected in a clean, disposable container with a screw cap and a spoon in an amount not exceeding 1/3 of the container's volume. The material is delivered to the laboratory within 3 hours from the moment of collection of the analysis. It is advisable to keep the material in the cold (temperature + 2 + 8) for the specified time. Avoid freezing!
The container must indicate your surname, initials, date of birth, date and time of collection of the material, the entry must be made in legible handwriting. When taking the material, sterility must be observed. If possible, the collection of material for the study should be carried out before the appointment of antibiotics (if not possible, then only 12 hours after the drug is discontinued).
Conditions that must be met:
The best time to collect sputum is early in the morning. So it is much more likely to get the sputum accumulated during the night when coughing, and not saliva.
Sputum collection is carried out strictly on an empty stomach.
Immediately before collecting sputum, thoroughly brush your teeth, spit out the accumulated saliva and rinse your mouth first with boiled water.
The material is collected in a clean, dry jar or in a sterile container (bakprint) with a sealed lid.
If sputum is separated in a meager amount, it is necessary to take expectorants on the eve of collecting the material. You can use aerosol inhalation, provoking an increase in bronchial secretion, or use the inhalation of a hot saline hypertonic solution for 10-20 minutes.
The container is tightly closed and the sputum is delivered to the laboratory no later than one hour after collection. If it is impossible to deliver the sputum within an hour, then the biomaterial can be stored in a refrigerator at 3-5 ° C for no more than 3 hours before testing.